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Which of the following is an invitation to treat?

  • A. Tender bid
  • B. Purchase order
  • C. Price list
  • D. Invoice

Answer: C


An invitation to treat is an action inviting other parties to make an offer to form a contract. These actions may sometimes appear to be offers themselves, and the difference can sometimes be difficult to determine. The distinction is important because accepting an offer creates a binding contract while "accepting" an invitation to treat is actually making an offer.

One simple test to distinguish an offer and an invitation to treat is to ask what this statement will become when it is accepted. Now we apply this test to four options:

- Tender bid: Tender bid is submitted by a supplier to an invitation to tender from the buyer. It states the specific quantity, price and other elements. If buyer accepts the bid, there will be a contract between them. Therefore, a tender bid is an offer.

- Purchase order: Purchase order which is sent by a buyer will state the items, the quantity, the price and terms and conditions. If supplier accepts the purchase order, there will also be a contract between two parties. It is also an offer.

- Price list: Price list is prepared by a supplier. The price list often states the items and unit price. If a buyer accepts it, the contract has not yet been formed since the contract scope has not yet been decided. It is an invitation to treat.

- Invoice: Invoice is often sent after a contract is formed. It is in fact a request for payment, neither offer nor invitation to treat.


- CIPS study guide page 29-32

- What Is an Invitation to Treat?

LO 1, AC 1.1


Information assurance protects information systems and...?

  • A. Inventory
  • B. People
  • C. Computers
  • D. Hard copy

Answer: C


Information Assurance (IA) is the practice of managing information-related risks and the steps involved to protect information systems such as computer and network systems. The IA transformation is a partnership that stretches across the Department of Defense (DoD), Office of National Intelligence, Committee on National Security Systems, National Institute of Science and Technology (NIST), and the Office of Management and Budget.

The US Government's definition of information assurance is:

"measures that protect and defend information and information systems by ensuring their availability, integrity, authentication, confidentiality, and non-repudiation. These measures include providing for restoration of information systems by incorporating protection, detection, and reaction capabilities." Reference:

- What is Information Assurance (IA)?

- CIPS study guide page 99-100

LO 2, AC 2.1


Cleveland Insurance (Cleveland) offers a range of insurance services. The main software used in the call centre is a customer relationship management (CRM) system. Cleveland perceived an urgent need to replace the existing CRM system to deal with the increasing number of customers and services.

Urgent Digital Ltd (Digital) is one of the bidders of Cleveland's ITT for designing, building and managing the new CRM system. Its bid team is led by Hank Irvine, its technical director. Hank realises that winning the Cleveland contract (valued at approximately £50M) will enhance his career. During discussions with Cleveland, Hank offers certain assurances regarding timescales for the project. He has not carried out any investigations into the viability of the timescales. Hank has little idea whether the timescales can be met.

Cleveland decides that Digital's bid meets with its requirements, especially given the assurances in timescale offered by Hank, and decides to proceed with it, subject to a formal contract. Eventually, a formal contract is signed by both parties. The initial assurances given by Hank about the timing of the project are never going to be achieved and are at best grossly exaggerated.

Cleveland brought the case to the court and sought rescission of contract with Digital. Is Cleveland's claim appropriate in this case?

  • A. No, because the contract does not include any provision on rescission
  • B. Yes, because both parties agreed with rescission of their contract
  • C. No, because the work had been carried out which could not be returned
  • D. Yes, because Cleveland needs to seek rescission first before claiming for damages

Answer: C


Hank's pre-contractual assurances may amount to misrepresentation. Remedies for misrepresentation could be rescission of contract or damages. Rescission will be impossible in the following instance:

- Where the innocent party has affirmed the contract; that is, acted in a way confirming that they wish it to continue

- Where the claim has not been brought within a reasonable time (this is a point of general law)

- Where restitution (returning to the pre-contractual position) is impossible (e.g. because the goods have been consumed or have deteriorated)

- Where there has been intervention of innocent third-party (e.g., if the goods have been sold on) In this case, the subject of contract is designing, building and managing the new CRM system which is impossible to be restituted. Therefore, the contract cannot be rescinded.


LO 1, AC 1.2


A procurement manager is preparing a long-term contract with a major supplier. She decides to use the variable pricing arrangement using price indices. The payment terms describe the circumstances and mechanism where the price is allowed to change. In order to successfully manage this type of contract, the buying organisation should have...?

  • A. Value for money
  • B. Good market knowledge
  • C. Economy of scale
  • D. Selection of base year

Answer: B


There are several approaches to price adjustment for long-term contract. Describing circumstances and mechanism is one of them. Although this approach has some limitations, it is the best option. It relies on good market knowledge but provides the most equitable approach to satisfying the needs of the purchaser and the supplier.


LO 3, AC 3.3


Which of the following should include in the service level agreement that is an appendix of a contract?

1. How often the service is measured

2. Minimum qualification of supplier staffs

3. Remedies to resolve dispute

4. On time service delivery

  • A. 1, 3 and 4 only
  • B. 2, 3 and 4 only
  • C. 1, 2 and 3 only
  • D. 1, 2 and 4 only

Answer: D


When the SLA is a schedule or an appendix to the contract, it should clearly state the following:

1. KPIs: how they are to be measured, who measures them and how often

2. How the measurements convert into scores

3. Any other service level standards, which may be of lesser importance than the KPIs

4. Minimum acceptable standards or scores in each case

5. Range of scores both above and below the minimum acceptable

6. Any mitigating factors which might apply in the event of poor performance

7. Any time period permitted in which to remedy a situation or poor performance.

In this question, "2. Minimum qualification of supplier staffs" and "4. On time service delivery" are the KPIs, while "1. How often the service is measured" is the frequency in which the KPIs are measured.

The remedies available in the event of poor performance should be set out in the body of the contract, along with those for any other contractual breach. These clauses should be cross-referenced in the SLA.


LO 2, AC 2.2